Source availability and e-voting: an advocate recants

A former proponent of requiring the availability of e-voting
system source code explains why he no longer develops
source-available e-voting software.

Source-available software whether proprietary or
nonproprietary (such as under open source licenses) has garnered
significant attention. The arguments in favor of taking a
source-available approach in general are numerous
[6], but only those of specific relevance to
e-voting systems will be discussed here.

Improved security. A system whose security
depends on its design and implementation being secret is likely
to have brittle defenses. If a system’s security is based on a
secret design that becomes public knowledge, then security is
compromised and the genie cannot be put back into the bottle.
Cryptographers and security professionals use peer review to
provide assurance for the quality of their systems. A security
scheme whose source code and design is known, yet continues to
offer a useful level of protection, is a good one. The secrets
such systems usually depend on are tokens such as passphrases or
keys. If a secret token is compromised, only a particular
instance of the system is compromised—not all systems of
that design. A new key or password can be chosen to remedy the
situation. In other words, security through obscurity doesn’t

Unfortunately, the leading e-voting suppliers work on this
principle of security through obscurity. At best, they share
limited details about their system designs [4]
and keep the source code closed. This provides no way for
stakeholders in the election process (election administrators,
candidates, voters) to verify that the software performs as the
suppliers claim. A closed approach is not conducive to building
confidence in e-voting systems. It puts an enormous burden of
trust on suppliers who have clear motivations to conceal security
failings. A source-available e-voting system, where the design
and source code are freely available, is likely to be more
trusted by stakeholders. Not only can the security of the system
design be assessed, but bugs can be spotted by anyone who
downloads and checks the code.

Transparency breeds quality. Developers are
motivated to provide clean, well-commented code when they know
their work will be publicly available. They do this out of pride
and, if they want participation, to help others understand and
contribute to the system. When errors do creep in (as bugs are
inevitable), then the transparency of source availability can
allow for anyone to patch holes and correct errors.

Freedom from dependencies. While sponsoring and
requiring the use of open protocols such as OASIS’s XML-based
Election Markup Language might help prevent vendor lock-in,
source availability can also play a significant role. Once an
authority has purchased proprietary voting machines, open
standards or not, the authority becomes dependent on the original
supplier to service the machines’ hardware and software. With
such strong lock-in, voting systems are clearly a lucrative
business—with the suppliers very much in control. Yet, with
a source-available voting system installed on voting kiosks,
authorities would at least have the option to maintain the
software themselves or contract its ongoing support to
less-expensive alternatives. Additionally, if a vendor chooses
not to provide a feature that a customer desires (such as
printing a paper ballot image for each vote cast), then the
authority has the ability to implement the feature itself.

A source-available approach also helps to prevent
municipalities from being abandoned if a provider withdraws from
the market. Support and future developments, such as to support
legislative changes, are made possible by source

The Arguments Against Source Availability

Although a source-available approach seems promising when
compared to the poor security and development practices of many
e-voting suppliers today, the benefits it offers are not enough
to overcome the risks.

Transparency goes only so far. The
source-available rhetoric, particularly regarding nonproprietary
development, is one of communally improving code. But while open
peer review can improve the quality and security of systems, it
requires active participation. The reality is that only a tiny
minority of source-available projects attract contributions, the
majority languish in obscurity with a single developer caring for
the code. Generally, the software most used by programmers is
that which gains the most attention. Thus, e-voting is not highly
attractive to most potential contributors. My experience is that
despite significant press coverage and backing from major
organizations, an e-voting project is not attractive to many

Arguments have also been made that source-available code’s
transparency reduces vulnerability to viruses. While GNU/Linux is
less likely to suffer from virus attacks than Windows systems,
this has nothing to do with GNU/Linux being a source-available
operating system. It is partly due to it being built on a
well-designed user-level security architecture derived from Unix.
Additionally, the relatively low number of desktop machines
running GNU/Linux makes it less attractive to virus writers who
prefer the rapid viral self-propagation that a dense monoculture
of Windows machines offers [5].

Now you see it, now you don’t. Having the
ability to review software design and source code does tend to
improve its security. But while the design and code may appear
sound, we have no guarantees this is what is actually used on
Election Day. This is a genuine risk, illustrated with the use of
uncertified software by Diebold in 17 Californian counties
[1] and by Elections Systems and Software in 41
Indiana counties [2], both during 2003 primaries.
Computers are black boxes where proving to voters that the
software audited is that being run is a challenging problem. Code
signing and certificates might have a role but, on large scales
and for extensive deployments, they are not enough.

Last-minute fixes are likely, and so any update process
presents the possibility that malicious code can also be
inserted. Given the inherent pressures of Election Day, what
would administrators do if code signatures didn’t validate on all
machines? A smart attacker would probably either subvert the code
signing system or create an exploit that didn’t require altering
code that is checked.

Design control. Changes to source code are
difficult to prevent in an e-voting system, whether or not it
uses source-available code. The same applies at the design level.
A collaboratively designed source-available system that embodied
the best practices in e-voting could be built. But on installing
the system a government could easily choose to modify the system
or implement it poorly, thereby rendering the system less secure
and less reliable. This has already occurred in Australia, where
an open source system implemented a voter verifiable paper trail
that the government chose to remove, thereby cutting out the
costs of providing printers [7]. Of course
governments have enough buying power to get any software changed,
but source availability makes such a possibility only that much
more likely.

Source availability doesn’t change the
Making an e-voting system’s source code
available doesn’t alter the fundamental challenges that e-voting
presents. Creating a secure, private, reliable and anonymous
system that provably records voters’ intentions accurately is an
extremely difficult technical problem. Source availability
doesn’t change the problems presented in preventing insider
attacks, correctly identifying voters while protecting their
identities, and in creating trustworthy audit trails that don’t
undermine voter anonymity. Electronic voting is challenging in
terms of usability, the scale on which it needs to be
implemented, and on the levels of trust we must have in the
outcome. Source availability does not change any of these
essential factors.


This article has shown that the source-available approach can
offer some security and transparency benefits to the development
of e-voting systems. Conversely, source-available software fails
to address the fundamental challenges involved in adding
technology to the voting process. The gains in system quality
that source availability might offer are not sufficient to
outweigh the considerable risks to the voting process that all
forms of e-voting present. It was for these reasons that, after
three years of extensive effort, I ceased development of
GNU.FREE, the world’s first open source e-voting software
[3]. More recent open source initiatives such as
the Open Voting Consortium in California are highly likely to
encounter similar difficulties. No amount of source availability,
clever design, or ingenious code can prevent poor implementation
or malicious source changes.


1. Ackerman, E. E-voting probe criticizes
vendor. The Mercury News, 2004;

2. Fritze, J. New voting equipment didn’t
pass state muster. The Indianapolis Star, 2004;

3. Kitcat, J.P. GNU.FREE…A Free Software
. 2003;

4. Mohen, J. and Glidden, J. The case for
Internet Voting. Commun. ACM 44, 1 (Jan. 2001),

5. Peeling, N. and Satchell, J. Analysis of
the impact of open source software. QinetiQ, 2001;

6. Stallman, R.M. Why Software Should Not
Have Owners
. Free Software Foundation, 1994;

7. Zetter, K. Aussies do it right: E-Voting.
Wired News, 2003;,1272,61045,00.html.

Originally published in the October 2004 Communications of the ACM where a PDF version is available.